Culex pipiens as a potential vector for transmission of Dirofilaria immitis and other unclassified Filarioidea in Southwest Spain.

Reseña Vet Parasitol. 2016 Jun 15;223:173-80. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2016.04.030. Epub 2016 Apr 27. Enlace
Autores Bravo-Barriga D, Parreira R, Almeida AP, Calado M, Blanco-Ciudad J, Serrano-Aguilera FJ, Pérez-Martín JE, Sánchez-Peinado J, Pinto J, Reina D, Frontera E.
Resumen Dirofilaria immitis is one of the most frequently detected mosquito-transmitted zoonotic filarioid nematode in mammals in Europe, being canine dirofilariosis a major animal health problem, endemic in the Mediterranean area. This study, focused on Southwest Spain, in order to bring new insights into (i) the epidemiology of Dirofilaria spp., (ii) the species of Culicid vectors possibly involved in their transmission and (iii) the genetic variability of those potential vectors. A total of 881 adult female mosquitoes from 11 different species, were captured during 2012-2013, and detection of filarioid DNA was attempted by PCR using specific primers (ITS-2 and COI), followed by DNA sequencing. In a single Culex pipiens specimen D. immitis DNA was detected both in the head-thorax and abdomen sections. Filarioid nematode DNA was also detected in eight additional Cx. pipiens specimens also in both the thorax and the abdomen, but analysis of sequence data did not allow unambiguous assignment of any of the obtained sequences to a previously defined species. All Cx. pipiens with filarioid DNA were individually analysed by CQ11 to discriminate between pipiens, molestus, and hybrid forms. Besides, rDNA ITS-2 sequence analysis revealed the presence of haplotype H1 and H2 of Cx. pipiens. To our knowledge this study revealed, for the first time in Spain, the occurrence of likely mature infection of D. immitis in Cx. pipiens, as well as with other yet uncharacterized nematodes, supporting its role as a potential vector of these filarids.
Contribución Our new findings suggest that Cx. pipiens f. pipiens can support the development of the parasite and thus could act as vector of D. immitis, for first time in Spain. Being Cx. pipiens an endemic species and highly abundant in the surveyed area, its possible role as vector could have a clear impact on human and veterinary health that must be taken into consideration to establish control measures for dirofilariosis. On the other hand, the presence of unidentified Filarioidea nematodes in Spain, possibly of avian origin, calls fora deeper understanding in terms of a characterization of their lifecycle, host-range, associated vectors and possible pathogenicity.
Departamento de Sanidad animal, Unidad de Parasitología, Facultad de Veterinaria, Cáceres.

Untitled.png

Grupo Parasitoex

Colaboración especial de:

Unidade de Parasitologia Médica e Unidade de Parasitologia e Microbiologia Médicas

Untitled2.png

Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical (IHMT)

Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Portugal.

 

Anuncios

Plasmin in Parasitic Chronic Infections: Friend or Foe?

Reseña Trends in Parasitology. 2016; 32 (4): 325-335. Enlace
Autores González-Miguel J., Siles-Lucas M., Kartasev V., Morchón R., Simón F.
Contribución Esta importante revisión propone un nuevo papel para la plasmina, enzima final del sistema fibrinolítico, en el contexto de las relaciones parásito/hospedador. Históricamente se había vinculado la producción de plasmina asociada a la interacción entre los parásitos y el sistema fibrinolítico con acciones beneficiosas para estos, relacionadas con su invasión, establecimiento en el hospedador y supervivencia en el medio vascular, debido a la capacidad de la plasmina para degradar no solo los coágulos de fibrina, sino otros muchos componentes de las matrices extracitoplasmáticas. No obstante, en los últimos años se ha denunciado el papel fisiopatológico de esta interacción a largo plazo en infecciones crónicas, siendo muchos de los hallazgos llevados a cabo por nuestro grupo en la dirofilariosis cardiopulmonar. Este trabajo propone estudiar las consecuencias de la interacción entre los parásitos y el sistema fibrinolítico como un balance entre los beneficios y perjuicios derivados de la producción de plasmina.
Resumen Plasmin is the final product of the fibrinolytic system, the physiological mechanism responsible for dissolving fibrin clots. Its broad-range proteolytic activity implies that interaction with fibrinolysis and recruitment of plasmin by blood and tissue parasites is an important mechanism that mediates the invasion and establishment of this kind of pathogen in the hosts. However, recent studies have linked an excess of plasmin generated by this interaction with serious pathological events at the vascular level, including the proliferation and migration of arterial wall cells, inflammation, and degradation of the extracellular matrix. Therefore, we present data that support the need to reconsider the role of plasmin, as well as its benefits or drawbacks, in the context of host-parasite relations
Grupo de investigación

Universidad de Salamanca

Grupo de dirofilariosis animal y humana

index-Grupo-dirofilariosis

Characterization of an immunodominant antigenic epitope from Trypanosoma cruzi as a biomarker of chronic Chagas’ disease pathology.

Reseña Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012; 19(2):167-173 Enlace
Autores Thomas MCFernández-Villegas ACarrilero BMarañón CSaura DNoya OSegovia MAlarcón de Noya BAlonso CLópez MC.
Contribución Actualmente, las técnicas de diagnóstico para la enfermedad de Chagas son muy sensibles y específicas, pero no permiten determinar el estadio crónico de la enfermedad. En este artículo se identifica la secuencia peptídica 3973, perteneciente a la proteína de membrana de Trypanosoma cruzi Tc-CA2, como biomarcador de la fase crónica asintomática a la fase sintomática de la enfermedad de Chagas.
Resumen Nowadays, the techniques available for chronic Chagas’ disease diagnosis are very sensitive; however, they do not allow discrimination of the patient’s clinical stages of the disease. The present paper describes that three out of the five different repeats contained in the Trypanosoma cruzi TcCA-2 membrane protein (3972-FGQAAAGDKPPP, 6303-FGQAAAGDKPAP, and 3973-FGQAAAGDKPSL) are recognized with high sensitivity (>90%) by sera from chronic Chagas’ disease patients and that they are not recognized by sera from patients in the acute phase of the disease. A total of 133 serum samples from chagasic patients and 50 serum samples from healthy donors were tested. In addition, sera from 15 patients with different autoimmune diseases, 43 serum samples from patients suffering an infectious disease other than Chagas’ disease, and 38 serum samples from patients with nonchagasic cardiac disorders were also included in this study. The residue 3973 peptide shows a specificity of >98%, as it is not recognized by individuals with autoimmune and inflammatory processes or by patients with a nonchagasic cardiomyopathy. Remarkably, the levels of antibody against the 3973 epitope detected by the sera from Chagas’ disease patients in the symptomatic chronic phase, involving cardiac or digestive alterations, are higher than those detected by the sera from Chagas’ disease patients in the indeterminate phase of the disease. It is suggested that the diagnostic technique described could also be used to indicate the degree of pathology. The amino acids F, Q, and DKP located in the peptide at positions 1, 3, and 8 to 10, respectively, are essential to conform to the immunodominant antigenic epitope.
Grupo de investigación Instituto de Parasitología y Biomedicina López Neyra20140410_133547

Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase signaling

Reseña Genome Biol 2013, 14 (2): R11. Enlace
Autores Clarke M, Lohan AJ, Liu B, Lagkouvardos I, Roy S, Zafar N, Bertelli C, Schilde C, Kianianmomeni A, Bürglin TR, Frech C, Turcotte B, Kopec KO, Synnott JM, Choo C, Paponov I, Finkler A, Heng Tan CS, Hutchins AP, Weinmeier T, Rattei T, Chu JS, Gimenez G, Irimia M, Rigden DJ, Fitzpatrick DA, Lorenzo-Morales J, Bateman A, Chiu CH, Tang P, Hegemann P, Fromm H, Raoult D, Greub G, Miranda-Saavedra D, Chen N, Nash P, Ginger ML, Horn M, Schaap P, Caler L, Loftus BJ.
Contribución Resultado del proyecto Genoma Acanthamoeba y la publicación del genoma de la primera especie de Acanthamoeba secuenciado en su totalidad (A. castellanii). Mediante este proyecto ahora sí se conoce el genoma de estos patógenos lo que conllevará como resultado una mejora en el diagnóstico, conocimiento de la biología celular y molecular del parásito y elucidación de nuevas dianas terapéuticas efectivas frente a estos protozoos emergentes.
Resumen The Amoebozoa constitute one of the primary divisions of eukaryotes, encompassing taxa of both biomedical and evolutionary importance, yet its genomic diversity remains largely unsampled. Here we present an analysis of a whole genome assembly of Acanthamoeba castellanii (Ac) the first representative from a solitary free-living amoebozoan. Ac encodes 15,455 compact intron-rich genes, a significant number of which are predicted to have arisen through inter-kingdom lateralgene transfer (LGT). A majority of the LGT candidates have undergone a substantial degree of intronization and Ac appears to have incorporated them into established transcriptional programs. Ac manifests a complex signaling and cell communication repertoire, including a complete tyrosine kinasesignaling toolkit and a comparable diversity of predicted extracellular receptors to that found in the facultatively multicellular dictyostelids. An important environmental host of a diverse range of bacteria and viruses, Ac utilizes a diverse repertoire of predicted pattern recognition receptors, many with predicted orthologous functions in the innate immune systems of higher organisms. Our analysis highlights the important role of LGT in the biology of Ac and in the diversification of microbial eukaryotes. The earlyevolution of a key signaling facility implicated in the evolution of metazoan multicellularity strongly argues for its emergence early in the Unikont lineage. Overall, the availability of an Ac genome should aid in deciphering the biology of the Amoebozoa and facilitate functional genomic studies in this important model organism and environmental host.
Grupo de investigación Amebas de vida libre – Instituto Universitario de Enfermedades Tropicales y Salud Pública de Canarias (IUETSPC)Grupo Jacob 2

Coming out of thes hell: building the molecular infrastructure for research on parasite-harbouring snails (Cantacessi, C., Prasopdee, S., Sotillo, J., Mulvenna, J., Tesana, S., Loukas, A.).

Coming out of thes hell: building the molecular infrastructure for research on parasite-harbouring snails. Enlace
Reseña PLoS NTD September 12, 2013 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002284
Autores Cantacessi, C., Prasopdee, S., Sotillo, J., Mulvenna, J., Tesana, S., Loukas, A.
Contribución A pesar de los cerca de 300 millones de personas que sufren alguna parasitosis transmitida por caracoles, los esfuerzos que se ponen en el estudio de estos hospedadores intermediarios son cada vez menores. Con la publicación del transcriptoma de Bythinia siamensis goniomphalos queremos contribuir con las últimas tecnologías en biología molecular al estudio del hospedador intermediario de Opisthorchis viverrini, y puede servir como base de datos de referencia para el estudio genético de los caracoles vectores de helmintos.
Resumen In Thailand and Laos alone, approximately 10 million people are infected with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini. Chronic infection with this parasite is considered the leading cause of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA, orbile-duct cancer) in large areas of Southeast Asia. In these regions, CCA caused by O. viverrini is typically diagnosed 30–40 years after infection, with death occurring within 3–6 months post diagnosis. O. viverrini is characterized by a three-host lifecycle, with prosobranchs nails of the genus Bithynia and cyprinid fishes acting as first and second intermediate hosts, respectively, while piscivorous mammals, including dogs, cats, and humans, act as definitive hosts. Over the last two decades, much attention has been paid to studies on the epidemiology, developmental biology, and diagnosis of O. viverrini, while recent biotechnological advances are contributing large-scale explorations of the fundamental molecular biology of this liver fluke, with a view toward identify ingkey molecules essential for its development, reproduction, and survival, as well as dissecting the molecular pathways leading to th e development of CCA. These advances provide a solid foundation for the development of novel strategies to fight this devastating disease. However, long-term control of O. viverrini–induced cancer strictly relies on the development of integrated approaches, targeting the parasite as well as its intermediate hosts.
Grupo de investigación Centre for Biodiscovery and Molecular Development of Therapeutics, James Cook University, Smithfield, Queensland, Australia

 © James BraunLuismi

Multigene families in Trypanosoma cruzi and their role in infectivity (De Pablos L. M., Osuna A.)

Multigene families in Trypanosoma cruzi and their role in infectivity Enlace
Reseña Infect Immun. 2012, 80(7): 2258-64
Autores De Pablos L. M., Osuna A.
Contribución Trypanosoma cruzi es uno de los pocos protozoos hemoflagelados que preside durante parte de su ciclo de vida intracelularmente y el único descrito capaz de invadir prácticamente cualquier tipo de célula nucleada.  La clara expansión de su genoma en secuencias repetidas y en concreto de familias multigénicas que codifican para proteínas de superficie refleja la gran diversidad de nichos donde este parásito puede hallarse. En este review reflejamos los datos moleculares y celulares obtenidos con respecto a las 4 mayores familias multigénicas de proteínas de superficie (transialidasa, mucinas, DGF-1 y MASP) e hipotetizamos cuál es el impacto que tiene la regulación de estas dentro del ciclo de vida de T. cruzi.
Resumen The Trypanosoma cruzi genome contains the most widely expanded content (∼12,000 genes) of the trypanosomatids sequenced to date. This expansion is reflected in the high number of repetitive sequences and particularly in the large quantity of genes that make up its multigene families. Recently it was discovered that the contents of these families vary between phylogenetically unrelated strains. We review the basic characteristics of trans-sialidases and mucins as part of the mechanisms of immune evasion of T. cruzi and as ligands and factors involved in the cross talk between the host cell and the parasite. We also show recently published data describing two new multigene families, DGF-1 and MASP, that form an important part of the scenario representing the complex biology of T. cruzi.
Grupo de investigación Instituto de BiotecnologíaCTS 183:  BIOQUÍMICA Y PARASITOLOGÍA MOLECULAR

Grupo LuismiSin título-2

 

Seropositivity rates for agents of canine vector-borne diseases in Spain: a multicentre study (Miró G, Montoya A, Roura X, Gálvez R, Sainz A.)

Seropositivity rates for agents of canine vector-borne diseases in Spain: a multicentre study Enlace
Reseña Parasites & Vectors 2013, 6(1):117
Autores Miró G, Montoya A, Roura X, Gálvez R, Sainz A.
Contribución En este trabajo se determina la seroprevalencia en el perro en España mediante dos test comerciales serológicos cualitativos de las siguientes zoonosis transmitidas por vectores: Leishmaniosis (15.7%), Filariosis (Dirofilaria immitis), Ehrlichiosis (5%), Anaplasmosis (3.1%) y Enfermedad de Lyme (0.4%). Se pone de manifiesto el riesgo del perro de adquirir alguna de estas cinco enfermedades. Los veterinarios por tanto deben incluir estas enfermedades en sus diagnósticos diferenciales. Así mismo, deben recomendar medidas profilácticas con el fin de evitar el contacto de los animales con los artrópodos vectores.
Resumen Controlling canine vector-borne diseases (CVBD) is a major concern, since some of these diseases are serious zoonoses. This study was designed to determine seropositivity rates in Spain for agents causing the following five CVBD: leishmaniosis (Leishmania infantum: Li), heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis: Di), ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis: Ec), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum/Anaplasma platys: An) and Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi: Bb). Anti-An, -Bb, and -Ec antibodies and the Di antigen were determined using the 4DX SNAP® Test (IDEXX Laboratories) and anti-L. infantum (Li) antibodies using the Leishmania SNAP® Test (IDEXX Laboratories) in blood and/or serum samples. Among 1100 dogs examined, overall seropositivity rates were: Li (15.7%), Ec (5%), An (3.1%), Di (1.25%) and Bb (0.4%). While seropositivity towards Bb and Di was similar in all geographic regions, rates were significantly higher in the east of Spain (8.3%) for An, significantly higher in the north (20%) for Ec, and significantly higher in the Southeast (46.6%) and South (27.4%), and significantly lower in the north (0%) for Li.No statistical associations were observed between sex and the CVBD analyzed (p ≥ 0.05) while the following associations with other variables were detected: a higher seropositivity to Ec (40%) and Bb (6.7%) in dogs under one year of age compared with adults (p < 0.05); and a higher seropositivity to An and Li in dogs that lived outdoors versus indoors (p = 0.01; p < 0.001, respectively). Seropositivity rates of 2.1%, 0%, 1.7%, 0.5% and 4.2% were recorded respectively for An, Bb, Ec, Di and Li in dogs with no clinical signs (n = 556) versus 3.8%, 0.6%, 7.5%, 1.8% and 25.9% for those with signs (n = 507) suggestive of a CVBD. The data obtained indicate a risk for dogs in Spain of acquiring any of the five CVBD examined. Veterinarians in the different regions should include these diseases in their differential diagnoses and recommend the use of repellents and other prophylactic measures to prevent disease transmission by arthropod vectors. Public health authorities also need to become more involved in the problem, since some of the CVBD examined here also affect humans.
Grupo de investigación Epicontrol y Parasitosis carnívoros – 

Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense20131217-174306.jpg

Acanthamoeba keratitis: an emerging disease gathering importance worldwide? (Lorenzo-Morales J., Martín-Navarro C. M., López-Arencibia A., Arnalich-Montiel F., Piñero J. E., Valladares B.)

Acanthamoeba keratitis: an emerging disease gathering importance worldwide? Enlace
Reseña Trends Parasitol 2013, 29(4): 181-187
Autores Lorenzo-Morales J., Martín-Navarro C. M., López-Arencibia A., Arnalich-Montiel F., Piñero J. E., Valladares B.
Contribución Con este Review publicado en 2013, se acepta por parte de la comunidad científica que los casos de infecciones por Acanthamoeba han pasado de ser casos raros a cada vez más frecuentes. Así, se establece que Acanthamoeba es un patógeno emergente del que cada vez se conocen más casos a nivel mundial.
Resumen Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is increasingly being recognized as a severe sight-threatening ocular infection worldwide. Although contact lens wear is the leading risk factor for AK, Acanthamoeba parasites are also an important cause of keratitis in non-contact lens wearers. Diagnosis of AK is challenging, and the available treatments are lengthy and not fully effective against all strains. The pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba is still under study, and the identification of the key factors involved in this process should be useful for the development of fully effective therapies. This review focuses on recent developments on AK pathogenesis and diagnosis as well as novel strategies for the evaluation of anti-amoebic agents that could be applied in the near future against these pathogens.
Grupo de investigación

Amebas de vida libre – Instituto Universitario de Enfermedades Tropicales y Salud Pública de Canarias (IUETSPC)

Grupo Jacob 2 Grupo Jacob 1

Multigene families in Trypanosoma cruzi and their role in infectivity (De Pablos L. M., Osuna A.)

Multigene families in Trypanosoma cruzi and their role in infectivity Enlace
Reseña Infect Immun. 2012, 80(7): 2258-64
Autores De Pablos L. M., Osuna A.
Contribución Trypanosoma cruzi es uno de los pocos protozoos hemoflagelados que preside durante parte de su ciclo de vida intracelularmente y el único descrito capaz de invadir prácticamente cualquier tipo de célula nucleada.  La clara expansión de su genoma en secuencias repetidas y en concreto de familias multigénicas que codifican para proteínas de superficie refleja la gran diversidad de nichos donde este parásito puede hallarse. En este review reflejamos los datos moleculares y celulares obtenidos con respecto a las 4 mayores familias multigénicas de proteínas de superficie (transialidasa, mucinas, DGF-1 y MASP) e hipotetizamos cuál es el impacto que tiene la regulación de estas dentro del ciclo de vida de T. cruzi.
Resumen The Trypanosoma cruzi genome contains the most widely expanded content (∼12,000 genes) of the trypanosomatids sequenced to date. This expansion is reflected in the high number of repetitive sequences and particularly in the large quantity of genes that make up its multigene families. Recently it was discovered that the contents of these families vary between phylogenetically unrelated strains. We review the basic characteristics of trans-sialidases and mucins as part of the mechanisms of immune evasion of T. cruzi and as ligands and factors involved in the cross talk between the host cell and the parasite. We also show recently published data describing two new multigene families, DGF-1 and MASP, that form an important part of the scenario representing the complex biology of T. cruzi.
Grupo de investigación Instituto de BiotecnologíaCTS 183:  BIOQUÍMICA Y PARASITOLOGÍA MOLECULAR
 Grupo Luismi

Surface associated antigens of Dirofilaria immitis adult worms activate the host fibrinolytic system (González-Miguel J., Morchón R., Carretón E., Montoya-Alonso JA, Simón F.)

Surface associated antigens of Dirofilaria immitis adult worms activate the host fibrinolytic system Enlace
Reseña Vet Parasitol 2013, 196 (1-2): 235-240.
Autores González-Miguel J., Morchón R., Carretón E., Montoya-Alonso JA, Simón F.
Contribución La dirofilariosis cardiopulmonar (Dirofilaria immitis) se caracteriza por la aparición de eventos contradictorios, como la supervivencia a largo plazo de los parásitos en el sistema circulatorio del hospedador o la generación de tromboembolismos de gravedad. Por ello la activación del sistema fibrinolítico (encargado de disolver coágulos) puede ser un mecanismo efectivo de supervivencia tanto para los vermes como para los animales parasitados. En este trabajo se demuestra que los antígenos de superficie de Dirofilaria immitis activan el sistema fibrinolítico del hospedador y se identifican  mediante técnicas proteómicas algunas proteínas parasitarias responsables de dicha activación.
Resumen Cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis (Dirofilaria immitis) is characterized by apparent contradictory events, like the long-term survival of adult worms in the circulatory system of the infected hosts and the development of life-threatening events like thromboembolisms and others. Thus parasite mechanisms, like the activation of fibrinolytic system, are key to the survival of both the worms and the host. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between D. immitis adult worms surface-associated antigens (DiSAA) and the fibrinolytic system of the host. We demonstrate that DiSAA extract is able to bind plasminogen and generate plasmin, with the latter occurring in a tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) dependent manner. Additionally, 11 plasminogen-binding proteins from DiSAA extract were identified by proteomics and mass spectrometry (MS) (actin-5C, actin-1, enolase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, GAPDH, MSP domain protein, MSP 2, beta-galactosidase-binding-lectin, galectin, immunoglobulin I-set domain-containing protein and cyclophilin Ovcyp-2). Because in a previous work we have shown the positive interaction between the excretory/secretory antigens of D. immitis (DiES) and the host fibrinolytic system and many of the molecules identified here are shared by both antigens, we hypothesize that DiSAA cooperate in host fibrinolytic system activation promoting the fibrin clot lysis.
Grupo de investigación

Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Salamanca (IBSAL) – Universidad de Salamanca & Universidad de Las Palma de Gran Canaria

Grupo de dirofilariosis animal y humana

 Grupo dirofilariosis USALGrupo dirofilariosis ULPGC